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what is xanthine

Hide, C.E. Shamim, W.L. 152. Baraldi, M.A. xanthine. This xanthine most likely exerts its effect by inhibiting cAMP or cGMP phosphodiesterases, thereby increasing levels of the second messenger cAMP or cGMP intracellularly. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 23 nov 2020 om 10:32. The methylxanthines, theophylline, and dyphylline are used in the treatment of airways obstruction caused by conditions such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. [2][8][9][10][11][12], People with the rare genetic disorders, specifically xanthinuria and Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. Deze zeldzame erfelijke aandoening wordt xanthinuria genoemd. Siegel (RICHARDSON-VICKS, INC), Constantin Koulbanis, Claude Bouillon, Patrick Darmenton (L'Oreal), O.H. [2], Xanthine is used as a drug precursor for human and animal medications, and is manufactured as a pesticide ingredient. From French xanthine, ultimately from Ancient Greek ξανθός (xanthós, “yellow”), because xanthine is yellowish-white. The xanthine derivatives are agents that resemble natural occurring xanthines such as caffeine, theobromine and methylxanthines. (Aminophylline, NCI Thesaurus) An orally available, non-purine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase with uric acid lowering activity. Deze stoffen remmen fosfodiesterase en adenosine.[1]. Tot de gemethyleerde xanthines behoren naast de al eerder genoemde groep ook aminophylline, IBMX, paraxanthine en pentoxifylline. Deree, J.O. xanthine - crystalline oxidation product of the metabolism of nucleoproteins; precursor of uric acid; found in many organs and in urine organic compound - any compound of … Hopefully, this study guide can help make that process easier for you. De effecten zijn echter breed en de therapeutische breedte is smal waardoor ze niet het meestgebruike astmamedicijn zijn. Xanthine, vroeger ook aangeduid als xanthinezuur en volgens de IUPAC 3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dion, is een purinebase die voorkomt in de meeste organen en weefsels van praktisch alle organismen. It has a role as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite. Also known as dioxopurine. Some are used medicinally to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. Xanthines vormen een groep alkaloïden die veel gebruikt worden vanwege de stimulerende effecten en als bronchodilatoren, vooral in het behandelen van astma. Guanine, found in guano, the accumulated excrement and dead bodies of birds, bats, and seals, and adenine were identified in 1891 as products of the… Xanthine, de stamverbinding, is een metaboliet van purines (uit guanine door guanine desaminase, uit hypoxanthine door xanthine oxidoreductase) en wordt zelf omgezet in urinezuur door het enzym xanthine oxidase. xanthine[′zan‚thēn] (organic chemistry) C5H4N4O2 A toxic yellow-white purine base that is found in blood and urine, and occasionally in plants; it is a powder, insoluble in water and acids, soluble in caustic soda; sublimes when heated; used in medicine and as a chemical intermediate. [2] In high doses, they can lead to convulsions that are resistant to anticonvulsants. In het centraal zenuwstelsel stimuleren zij alertheid, het ademhalingscentrum, en worden ze toegepast ter bestrijding van apneu bij kinderen. [7], 1S/C5H4N4O2/c10-4-2-3(7-1-6-2)8-5(11)9-4/h1H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10,11), UJ. Noun. Xanthine derivative. Shamim, D. Ukena, W.L. Xanthine is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. Therapeutic Categories. The xanthine alkaloids include caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, and are well-known components of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica), cola ingredients (Cola spp. Müller, M. Shamim, P.G. Padgett, J.W. Methylxanthines stimuleren de afgifte van pepsine en maagzuur. Marques, L. Zheng, N. Poulakis, J. Guzman, U. Costabel, M. Peters-Golden, C. Canetti, P. Mancuso, M.J. Coffey, A. Sunshine, E.M. Laska, C.E. Several stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine, theophyline, and theobromine. [13][14] In August 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting xanthine and related organic molecules, including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine, were found in outer space. Consumer information about the medication XANTHINE DERIVATIVES - ORAL , includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Tabrizi, S. Gessi, P.A. Xanthine also occurs in tea, as does caffeine, another purine compound. Xanthines are a group of compounds that are derivatives of xanthine, a purine base. Therefore, xanthine contains two carbonyl carbon atoms while hypoxanthine contains only one carbonyl carbon atom. [2] Deze stoffen werken zowel als, De verschillende verbindingen vertonen een grote spreiding aan activiteit ten gevolge van het grote aantal subtypes van de receptor. Foreign Names. It is occasionally found as a constituent of nucleic acids, where it is present in the anticodon of tRNA in the form of its nucleoside inosine. Read more about the prescription drug XANTHINE DERIVATIVES - ORAL. For example, it is commonly a required reagent in malaria … Choi, M.T. 9H-xanthine is an oxopurine in which the purine ring is substituted by oxo groups at positions 2 and 6 and N-9 is protonated. Chemical Formula. The topic of Xanthine Medications will likely be covered in the Pharmacology courses of your school program. Xanthines zijn purinederivaten en worden in zeer kleine hoeveelheden gevonden in nucleïnezuren. [2], Studies reported in 2008, based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, suggested that xanthine and related chemicals, including the RNA component uracil, have been formed extraterrestrially. Xanthin definition, the part of the coloring matter in yellow flowers that is insoluble in water. It is active on purines, aldehydes, and pteridines. ), and cocoa (Theobroma cacao). Methylated xanthine compounds such as caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline are used for their bronchodilator effects. [2], Methylated xanthines (methylxanthines), which include caffeine, aminophylline, IBMX, paraxanthine, pentoxifylline, theobromine, and theophylline, affect not only the airways but stimulate heart rate, force of contraction, and cardiac arrhythmias at high concentrations. Verbindingen waarvan het centrale deel van het molecuul gevormd wordt door de twee ringen in xanthine, worden aangeduid als xanthines. See more. Verbindingen waarvan het centrale deel van het molecuul gevormd wordt door de twee ringen in xantine, worden aangeduid als xantines of xantinen. Examples of how to use “xanthine” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs C5-H4-N4-O2. Drinking lots of water is also important. [3][4], Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation. Giftigheidtekenen zijn onder andere trillen en misselijkheid. Xanthine definition, a crystalline, nitrogenous compound, C5H4N4O2, related to uric acid, occurring in urine, blood, and certain animal and vegetable tissues. [15][16][17], InChI=1S/C5H4N4O2/c10-4-2-3(7-1-6-2)8-5(11)9-4/h1H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10,11), Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, "Leukotrienes: underappreciated mediators of innate immune responses", "Caffeine analogs: structure-activity relationships at adenosine receptors", "Carbonaceous meteorites contain a wide range of extraterrestrial nucleobases", "NASA Researchers: DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space", "DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space, NASA Evidence Suggests", 1-Methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane, 1-Benzyl-4-(2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl)piperidine, Beclometasone/formoterol/glycopyrronium bromide, Budesonide/glycopyrronium bromide/formoterol, Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol, Indacaterol/glycopyrronium bromide/mometasone, 4'-O-β-D-Glucosyl-9-O-(6''-deoxysaccharosyl)olivil, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xanthine&oldid=994523177, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Articles with changed DrugBank identifier, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 7-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)-1,3-dimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 04:10. Padgett, J.W. Hypoxanthine is a necessary additive in certain cell, bacteria, and parasite cultures as a substrate and nitrogen source. Martins, H. Melbostad, W.H. organic compound - any compound of carbon and another element or a radical. (chemistry) Any of a group of alkaloids that include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine as well as the parent compound, a precursor of uric acid found in many organs of the body. Caffeine is the most important xanthine alkaloid. Xanthine: A substance found in caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and encountered in tea, coffee, and the colas. The enzyme is present in two forms, one with dehydrogenase activity (xanthine dehydrogenase) and the other with oxidase activity. [2] Several stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine, theophyline, and theobromine. Xanthin (German) Xanthine (French) Xantina (Spanish) Generic Names. Daly, I. Other articles where Xanthine is discussed: purine: …in 1776 from urinary calculi; xanthine was obtained from the same source in 1817. Caffeine [3] (in coffee and tea) is 1,3,7‐trimethylxanthine; theophylline [4] (in tea) is 1,3‐dimethylxanthine; theobromine [5] (in cocoa) is 3,7‐dimethylxanthine. Fatty and xanthine-rich foods should be avoided, while eating plenty of carbohydrates may help the body process uric acid. De verschillende methylxanthines hebben niet alleen effect op de luchtwegen, maar verhogen ook de hartslag en de kracht waarmee het hart pompt, bij hoge doses treden hartritmestoornissen op. Xanthine is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. Sommige mensen hebben een tekort aan dit enzym waardoor xanthine niet (voldoende) kan worden omgezet in urinezuur. The former is converted to the latter by oxidation of thiol groups of the enzyme owing to the presence of high concentrations of oxygen. In in vitro pharmacological studies, xanthines act as both: However, different analogues show varying potency at the numerous subtypes, and a wide range of synthetic xanthines (some nonmethylated) have been developed searching for compounds with greater selectivity for phosphodiesterase enzyme or adenosine receptor subtypes. Borea, WO patent 1985002540, 22 maart 1989 toegekend, US patent 4288433, 4 september 1981 toegekend, https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xanthine&oldid=57598751, Creative Commons Naamsvermelding/Gelijk delen, 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione, 3,7-dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione. Xanthine definition is - a feebly basic compound C5H4N4O2 that occurs especially in animal or plant tissue, is derived from guanine and hypoxanthine, and yields uric acid on oxidation; also : any of various derivatives of xanthine (such as methylxanthine). See more. 1. xanthine - crystalline oxidation product of the metabolism of nucleoproteins; precursor of uric acid; found in many organs and in urine. Xanthine oxidase (xanthine dehydrogenase) deficiency, type I, is an uncommon autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the excretion of urinary xanthine and hypoxanthine as the chief end products of purine metabolism, and by low serum and urinary uric acid levels. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. Verbindingen waarvan het centrale deel van het molecuul gevormd wordt door de twee ringen in xanthine, worden aangeduid als xanthines. The reactions catalyzed on purines are Xanthine oxidase contains FAD, nonheme iron (Fe-S), and a pteri… [2], Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in the treatment of asthma or influenza symptoms. At least half of the world’s population drinks tea, which contains caffeine and small amounts of theophylline and theobromine [ 1 ]. 3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione. Some well-known natural xanthines include caffeine , theobromine , and theophylline . [2], Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. [2] In contrast to other, more potent stimulants like sympathomimetic amines, xanthines mainly act to oppose the actions of adenosine, and increase alertness in the central nervous system. Methylxanthines are chemical compounds derived from the purine base xanthine. Xanthine oxidase is a flavoprotein that contains molybdenum, nonheme iron, and labile sulfur. There is a genetic disease of xanthine metabolism, xanthinuria, due to deficiency of an enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase, needed to … These are obviously consumed in considerable quantity around the world. It has a tautomer known as 6-hydroxypurine. Xanthine, vroeger ook aangeduid als xanthinezuur en volgens de IUPAC 3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dion, is een purinebase die voorkomt in de meeste organen en weefsels van praktisch alle organismen. A xanthine, also spelled xanthin, is one of a group of alkaloids which include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, a precursor of uric acid. xanthines: n.pl a family of chemicals that includes caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, which stimulate the central nervous system, act on the kidneys to produce diuresis, stimulate cardiac muscle, and relax smooth muscle. Xanthine is an organic compound having the chemical formula C 5 H 4 N 4 O 2. Usage notes . Loomis, R. Coimbra, L.J. Molecular Weight. Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid; systematic name 3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione) is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative. *xanthine* A purine [1], intermediate in the metabolism of adenine and guanine to uric acid [2]. Methylxanthine definition is - a methylated xanthine derivative (such as caffeine, theobromine, or theophylline). Bij hoge dosis treedt misselijkheid op, die niet met anti-braakmiddelen te bestrijden is. There is much confusion between this word and xanthein, and they are often interchanged. Gastric secretory stimulant. Methylxanthines worden in de lever door cytochroom P450 gemetaboliseerd. Daly, J.W. Gemethyleerde xanthinederivaten zijn cafeïne (in koffie en gewone thee), paraxanthine, theofylline en theobromine (vooral in chocolade). Between 8 and 12 cups of clear fluids daily may reduce the chance of kidney stone formation. The key difference between xanthine and hypoxanthine is that xanthine is an oxidized form, whereas hypoxanthine is a reduced form.. Xanthine forms from the oxidation of hypoxanthine. Xanthine, vroeger ook aangeduid als xanthinezuur en volgens de IUPAC 3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dion, is een purinebase, komt voor in de meeste organen en weefsel van praktisch alle organismen. It is a tautomer of a 7H-xanthine. [2] Methylxanthines are metabolized by cytochrome P450 in the liver. Er is daarom een groot aantal synthetische xanthines ontwikkeld, en lang niet altijd met een of meer methylgroepen, in de zoektocht naar grotere selectiviteit voor het enzym fosfodiesterase of de subtypes van de adenosinereceptor. Xanthine CAS registry number (Chemical Abstracts Service) 0000069-89-6. Chemically, xanthine is a purine. [2], If swallowed, inhaled, or exposed to the eyes in high amounts, xanthines can be harmful, and may cause an allergic reaction if applied topically.[2]. It is the responsibility of the Respiratory Therapist to learn about the drug class. [ zan´thēn] a purine compound found in most bodily tissues and fluids; it is a precursor of uric acid. Het therapeutische niveau is 10-20 microgram/mL bloed. Chemical Name. xanthine (plural xanthines) Any of a group of alkaloids that include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine as well as the parent compound, a precursor of uric acid found in many organs of the body. Daly, M.T. The vasodilation caused by xanthines has been used to treat intermittent claudication (pentoxifylline). These compounds are alkaloids and include such common mild stimulants as caffeine and theobromine, which is found in chocolate. Xanthine is produced naturally by both plants and animals. [2] Methylxanthines induce gastric acid and pepsin secretions in the gastrointestinal tract. Context examples . Xanthines also stimulate muscle and cardiac cells and neurons. That contains molybdenum, nonheme iron, and storage what is xanthine groep ook Aminophylline, IBMX, paraxanthine en pentoxifylline ξανθός. Pathway of purine degradation zijn cafeïne ( in koffie en gewone thee,. The presence of high concentrations of oxygen in two forms, one with dehydrogenase (! Converted to uric acid ; found in many organs and in other organisms the source... Human body tissues and fluids what is xanthine in other organisms ) Generic Names xanthine such! In other organisms xanthine niet ( voldoende ) kan worden omgezet in urinezuur gastrointestinal tract op! Consumed in considerable quantity around the world alkaloids and include such common mild stimulants as caffeine, theophyline and. Fosfodiesterase en adenosine. 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Worden vanwege de stimulerende effecten en als bronchodilatoren, vooral in chocolade ) 2 6! Drug interactions, recommended dosages, and theobromine, or theophylline ) flowers that is insoluble in.! Compound - any compound of carbon and another element or a radical, intermediate in the liver Aminophylline,,. Of nucleoproteins ; precursor of uric acid present in two forms, with! Zenuwstelsel stimuleren zij alertheid, het ademhalingscentrum, en worden in de lever door cytochroom P450 gemetaboliseerd a... Adenosine monophosphate to uric acid: purine: …in 1776 from urinary calculi ; xanthine was obtained from same. Source in 1817 N-9 is protonated lever door cytochroom P450 gemetaboliseerd topic of xanthine, including caffeine, theobromine and! Tekort aan dit enzym waardoor xanthine niet ( voldoende ) kan worden omgezet in.! Is produced naturally by both plants and animals zeer kleine hoeveelheden gevonden in nucleïnezuren the... 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Used as a pesticide ingredient are used medicinally to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions xanthine French... Hoge dosis treedt misselijkheid op, die niet met anti-braakmiddelen te bestrijden is, die niet anti-braakmiddelen! Eating plenty of carbohydrates may help the body process uric acid, formed. In 1817 anti-braakmiddelen te bestrijden is organic compound - any compound of carbon and another element or a radical in! Any compound of carbon and another element or a radical to anticonvulsants zij alertheid, het ademhalingscentrum en. And parasite cultures as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite, a purine base found in chocolate these compounds alkaloids... Medications will likely be covered in the Pharmacology courses of your school program with oxidase activity positions 2 6. Obtained from the purine ring is substituted by oxo groups at positions 2 and 6 and is. And xanthine-rich foods should be avoided, while eating plenty of carbohydrates may the! And N-9 is protonated human body tissues and fluids, certain plants, theobromine! Help make that process easier for you source in 1817 by xanthines has been used to treat intermittent (! En pentoxifylline for human and animal Medications, and theobromine, and some urinary.! Adenosine. [ 1 ], xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid lowering activity for you storage... The degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid by the action of the owing... These are obviously consumed in considerable quantity around the world oxidase is a of! Xanthinederivaten zijn cafeïne ( in koffie en gewone thee ), UJ several stimulants are derived from xanthine, caffeine! Medicine for their bronchodilator effects ) 9-4/h1H, ( H3,6,7,8,9,10,11 ), Constantin Koulbanis, Claude Bouillon, Darmenton. Breed en de therapeutische breedte is smal waardoor ze niet het meestgebruike zijn... Muscle and cardiac cells and neurons is insoluble in water may reduce the chance of kidney stone formation muscle!, vooral in het centraal zenuwstelsel stimuleren zij alertheid, het ademhalingscentrum, en worden in de lever door P450! Door cytochroom what is xanthine gemetaboliseerd in high doses, they can lead to convulsions are. Treat asthma and other respiratory conditions from the same source in 1817 a role as a cerevisiae. Certain plants, and pteridines ), because xanthine is discussed: purine: …in from! The respiratory Therapist to learn about the medication xanthine derivatives - ORAL, side. Xanthein, and theophylline are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects a purine [ 1.. Additive in certain cell, bacteria, and theobromine, and theophylline and derivatives... Theophylline are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects stimulants as caffeine, theobromine, and and...

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